Mindfulness is used in a comprehensive way in psychotherapy. Mindfulness is a deliberate living right here and now with full awareness (Lehrhaupt, Meibert, 2017). Without attachment to the moment, but also not rejecting or judging, more attending and experiencing any new moment without bounding between past and future, rather being here and now (Hayes, Follett & Linehan, 2004). Mindfulness can be practised anytime and everywhere with meditation or contemplative prayer. Mindfulness is not practised only in psychotherapy but also in martial arts, yoga and other disciplines. (Hayes, 2004)
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy.
The inventor of Mindfulness -Based Therapy (MBCT), is Jon Kabat Zin, who is a founder of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Therapy (MBSR) as well. Zindel Segal, John Teasdale, and Mark Williams, who connected Eastern Buddhist philosophy and meditation and the western psychology of CBT (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002). The two components were created, similar to CBT, to deal with the positive outcome of negative thoughts and behaviours.
The MBCT was previously used for group intervention to prevent relapse into depression but today is used broadly for mental and physical problems (Segal et al, 2002).
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction
As was mentioned before, Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn is the founder of the Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Program. This eight-week program has been in use since 1979. By 1999 over 10.000 people were using this short-term treatment (Kuyken, 2013)
Mindfulness and DBT
DBT specifically focuses on providing therapeutic skills in four key areas;
Mindfulness. The core thought is to accept and help to improve the existence, without judging the present moment and stay with the moment without prejudicing the future or dealing with the past. Mindfulness is a tool which can overcome archetypal, negative beliefs the client may have about themselves and others (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).
Distress tolerance. Similar to the previous place (mindfulness) is to stay with the moment but do not avoid the present moment and the feelings, rather stay with them and experience it. This skill helps the client to cope better with uncomfortable situations by creating a new way to diminish the effects of distressing circumstances (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).
Emotion regulation. This tool helps to recognize more clearly what the client can feel and then observe each emotion without getting overwhelmed by it. This skill teaches clients how to feel in constructive and healthy ways by learning new strategies to manage powerful emotions which are creating problems in a client’s life (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).
Interpersonal effectiveness. This technique entails empowering clients to interact with others by learning how to express their own beliefs and needs. This skill improves self-esteem and teaches clients how to present their new self with respect to others while protecting their own self (Chapman, 2006).
“The best way to capture moments is to pay attention. This is how we cultivate mindfulness. Mindfulness means being awake. It means knowing what you are doing.” ~ Jon Kabat-Zinn